Leucoma (corneal opacity)


    This means the lack or loss of transperency of the cornea. It mostly arises from keratitis or wounds in  the cornea. The condition may also be congenital. It usually interfers with the vision especially when located at the level of the pupil.



    Recent cases can be treated by application of an irritant as calomel insufflation, 3 % yellow oxide of mercury twice daily. The condition can be treated also by either cortisone eye ointment, providing that there is no corneal injury, or by subconjunctival injection of cortisone solution. Corneal grafting has been done with success in human being. In some instances opacity can be touched with silver nitrate sticks for few seconds then washing with normal saline solution or distilled water several times.


Iris staphyloma


    The term iris staphyloma, refers to the prolapse or protrusion of the iris through a ruptured cornea. The condition is characterized by the formation or appearance of granuloma like swelling beyond the level of the opend cornea.



    It is only treated surgically by resection of the prolapsed iris as early as possible to guard against introduction of infection. Then application of atropine if the protruded iris in the center or eserine or pilocarpine if the protruded part in the priphery. The resultant ulcer is then covered by a fold of the conjunctiva.


Corneal xerosis


    A condition characterized by dryness of the cornea with necrosis of the epithelium. It is occasionally seen in dogs affected with canine distemper and in cases of paralysis of the fascial or trigeminal nerve. It is also met with in cases of ectropion and vitamin A defeciency.


Corneal Dermoid


This is a congenital growth of more or less normal skin in the conjunctiva or cornea. The hair which present on its surface may irritate the cornea and conjunctiva. Correction of  the condition is by surgical dissection of  the  dermoid under the control of local infiltration anesthesia. This is followed by local application of antibiotic ophthalmic ointment.


Infectious kerato-conjunctivitis in cattle


    It is an infectious diseas widely spreads in Africa, America and Europe. The exact cause of the disease is not fully known up till now. It is said that the cause might be virus, rickettsia or bacteria. Morexella bovis got isolated from cattle suffering from the diseas.



    The diseas is characterized by milky discolouration of the cornea accompanid with keratitis and conjunctivitis which outstands after a period of incubation ranging from 4 - 9 days from the onset of the infection. In mild cases healing usually occurs within few weeks, in worst conditions, there may be an ulceration or perforation of the cornea and the patient become blind.



    The affected animals must be isolated in a dark place and given, in addition to local antibiotic ophthalmic ointment, a parentral administration or broad spectrum antibiotics. Quarantine measures and disinfiction of the stables are extremely necessary.